The objective of the basic mathematics is to provide students with basic mathematical skills required to understand social activities and to enhance quantitative analysis in social sciences and social studies.

##### Contents

- Set Theory, Real Number System and complex number
- Concept and specification of sets
- Types of sets and their relations
- Laws of sets
- Type of real numbers: Natural numbers, Integers, Rational numbers Irrational numbers and Real numbers
- Properties: addition, multiplication, cancellation, distributive and order
- Concept of complex number

- Functions, Limits and Continuity
- Constant and variable
- Concept of functions
- Types of functions
- Graphic representation of algebraic, logarithmic and exponential functions
- Computation of functional values
- Domain and range of a function
- Concept and theories of limit
- Limit of function at a particular point and at infinity

- Differentiation and Integration
- Concept of derivatives (Principle of algebraic, logarithmic and exponential functions)
- Methods of differentiation
- Maxima and minima of a function of one variable
- Concept of integration
- Methods of integration (algebraic, logarithmic and exponential functions)

- Vectors, Matrix and Determinants
- Concept of vector and algebra
- Concept of matrix and algebra
- Concept of determinants and algebra

- Probability
- Concept of probability
- Factorial notation
- Permutation and combination
- Basic type of Probability (classical approach, relative frequency approach and subjective approach)
- Some fundamental rules of probability (additional rule, multiplication rules, conditional probability)

##### References

- Taro Yamane, (2012). Mathematics for Economics. New Delhi, Prentice Hall of India,
- Thomas & Finney (2012).Calculus and Analytic Geometry
- Bajracharya B.C. (2069 B.S.). Basic Mathematics (2nd Ed.), Kathmandu: M.K. Publishers.
- Parajuli, K.K. (2010). Basic Mathematics (5th Ed.). Kathmandu: Sukunda Pustak Bhawan.
- Amatya, Sunil, et al. (2066 B.S.).Basic Mathematics, Kathmandu: Talaju Prakashan