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## BPA 205: Basic Mathematics

The objective of the basic mathematics is to provide students with basic mathematical skills required to understand social activities and to enhance quantitative analysis in social sciences and social studies.

##### Contents
1. Set Theory, Real Number System and complex number
• Concept and specification of sets
• Types of sets and their relations
• Laws of sets
• Type of real numbers: Natural numbers, Integers, Rational numbers Irrational numbers and Real numbers
• Properties: addition, multiplication, cancellation, distributive and order
• Concept of complex number
2. Functions, Limits and Continuity
• Constant and variable
• Concept of functions
• Types of functions
• Graphic representation of algebraic, logarithmic and exponential functions
• Computation of functional values
• Domain and range of a function
• Concept and theories of limit
• Limit of function at a particular point and at infinity
3. Differentiation and Integration
• Concept of derivatives (Principle of algebraic, logarithmic and exponential functions)
• Methods of differentiation
• Maxima and minima of a function of one variable
• Concept of integration
• Methods of integration (algebraic, logarithmic and exponential functions)
4. Vectors, Matrix and Determinants
• Concept of vector and algebra
• Concept of matrix and algebra
• Concept of determinants and algebra
5. Probability
• Concept of probability
• Factorial notation
• Permutation and combination
• Basic type of Probability (classical approach, relative frequency approach and subjective approach)
• Some fundamental rules of probability (additional rule, multiplication rules, conditional probability)
##### References
• Taro Yamane, (2012). Mathematics for Economics. New Delhi, Prentice Hall of India,
• Thomas & Finney (2012).Calculus and Analytic Geometry
• Bajracharya B.C. (2069 B.S.). Basic Mathematics (2nd Ed.), Kathmandu: M.K. Publishers.
• Parajuli, K.K. (2010). Basic Mathematics (5th Ed.). Kathmandu: Sukunda Pustak Bhawan.
• Amatya, Sunil, et al. (2066 B.S.).Basic Mathematics, Kathmandu: Talaju Prakashan