Sixth Semester

BPA 421: Research Methods in Public Administration

The objective of this course is to familiarize students with the principles and procedures of research and to enhance their knowledge to conduct research works in the fields of social sciences.

  1. Introduction
    • Concept of Research
    • Nature and Objectives of Research
    • Characteristics of Research
    • Significance of Research
  2. Fundamentals of Research
    • Concept of research problem and literature review
    • Concept of variables
    • Concept of measurement
    • Research methods: Descriptive, explanatory and exploratory
    • Technical aspects of research such as citing reference, bibliography and annex
  3. Data collection methods in social sciences
    • Data and its types: Quantitative, qualitative, chronological and geographical
    • Data collection methods
    • Schedule: Concept, purpose, type, importance, merits and demerits
    • Questionnaire: Concept, purpose, types, importance, merits and demerits
    • Interviews: Concept, purpose, types, importance, merits and demerits
    • Observation Methods: Concept, purpose, types, importance, merits and demerits
  4. Sampling Methods
    • Concepts, meaning, significance
    • Types of sampling
  5. Proposal and Report Writing
    • Concept, function, type, purpose and steps of writing reports
    • Steps of writing academic proposal
    • Features (qualities) of a good academic proposal
    • Features (qualities) of a good academic report
  • Acharya, Balaram (2064). Anusandhan Paddhati Tatha Prtibedan Lekhan. Kathmandu: National Book center
  • Adhikari, Ganesh Prashad (2003). Social Research for Thesis writing. Kathmandu: Investigation Nepal.
  • Baskota, Suman (2061). Research Methodology. Kathmandu: New Hira Books Enterprise.
  • Bhanadari,, Dila Ram (2012). Research Methodology. Kathmandu: Dhaulagiri Books and Stationery.
  • Creswell, Hohn W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approches. New Delhi: Sage Publications Pvt. Ltd.
  • Joshi, Puspa Raj (2003). Research Methodology. Kathmandu: Buddha Academic Publishers and Distributers Private Ltd.
  • Joshi, Puspa Raj (2064). Anusandhan Paddhati. Kathmandu: Buddha Academic publishers and Distributors.
  • Kerlinger, Fred.N . (2000). Foundations of Behavioural Research. Delhi:Surjeet Publications.
  • Khati, Radhaber D. (2006). Introduction to Research Methods. Kathmandu: Thirdeye Publishers
  • Kothari, C.R. (2010). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. NewDelhi: New Age International Private Limited.
  • Kuhan, Thomas S. (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. USA: International Encyclopedia of Unified Science.
  • Pant, Prem Raj (2016). SocialScience Research and Thesis Writing. Kathmandu: Buddha Publication.
  • Sharma Puspa Raj (2064). Research Methodology With SPSS: Useful Thesis, Project Work and Report Writing.
  • Sharma, BAV, Prashad, Ravindra & P. Shatyanaryan (1989). Research Methodology. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Private Limited.
  • Young, Pauline V. (1982). Scientific Social Survey and Research. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited.
Sixth Semester

BPA 422: Government Budgeting, Accounting and Auditing

The objective of the course is to provide students with a basic knowledge of budgeting, accounting and auditing so as to make them competent and capable of understanding the principles and theories of budgeting, accounting, and auditing as well as their significance and operation.


  1. Budget
    • Meaning
    • Features and component of budget
    • Classification of budgeting
    • Formulation of budget cycle
    • Theories of budgeting
    • Process of budget formulation and budget cycle
    • History of Budget in Nepal
  2. Accountancy
    • Conceptual foundation of Accountancy
    • Book-keeping and accounting: meaning and importance
    • Accounting: principles, concept and conventions
    • Double-entry system: meaning and features
    • Financial Transaction and Record Keeping (accounting records): Accounting equation, Journal, debit and credit rules, books of original entry, types of accounts and subsidiary books including cash books and petty cash book
    • Ledger accounts
    • Trial balance
    • Depreciation
    • Bank reconciliation
  3. Financial Statements
    • Income Statement: meaning, importance and contains/items of trading and manufacturing account, profit and loss and appropriation account
    • Balance sheet
    • Statement of shareholders’ equity
  4. Governmental Accounting
    • Financial administration of governmental of Nepal
    • Store Accounting: Introduction, features, importance and forms used for recording
    • Principles and procedures of Nepal Government’s expenditure accounting system based on budgetary accounting
    • Treasury Single Account
    • Budget Sheet and Ledger Accounts
    • Financial reporting by field offices.
  5. Auditing
    • Concept, importance, objectives
    • Types of Auditing
    • Internal auditing system of government of Nepal


  • Fess, Philip E. (1987). Accounting Principles. Dallas: South-Western Publishing Co.
  • Neeley, L. Padem & Imek, Frank J. (1987). Accounting Principles and Practice. Dallas: South-Western Publishing Company.
  • Koirala et al. (2072). Principles of Accounting. Kathmandu: Asmita Books Publishers and Distributors.
  • Koirala et al. (2072). Principles of Accounting II. Kathmandu: Asmita Books Publishers and Distributors.
Sixth Semester

BPA 423: Computer Applications

This course aims to provide students with a fundamental knowledge of data storage and management technology. It familiarizes students with flat file system, relational DBMS and some newer concepts like NoSQL and ways to access data programmatically using Python. It makes them proficient in using RDBMS system. Students should be able to parse and extract useful information from raw data for management and administration using DBMS.


  1. Introduction
    • Characteristics and definition of database and database management system
    • Database history
    • Organization of records
    • File organizations
  2. Database Systems, Concepts and Architecture
    • Database environment
    • DBMS architecture and data independence
    • Data models
    • E-R model; Entity types, attributes, keys and relationship types
    • Codd’s Rule
    • Relational Model: Introduction to relational db; Relational algebra and kinds of relation
    • Integrity constrains, and integrity violations
    • Transactions and ACID properties
    • Access control and authorization; Security and views
    • Parallel processing in RDBMS and NoSQL
  3. Information storage technologies
    • Data storage in unstructured, semi-structured and structured format
    • Introduction to Flat files and types of data stored: TXT, CSV, XML, JSON, YAML
    • Parsing and accessing different types of flat file through Python
    • Introduction to RDBMS
    • Web and big data: web event data and customer behavior, large Data set
    • NoSQL – column, document, key-value, graph
    • Comparison between different types of databases
  4. Introduction to SQL
    • DDL, DML and DQL
    • SELECT, WHERE, LIKE, ORDER BY, GROUP BY, Having clause, DISTINCT, AND/OR operator
    • CRUD operations in Python
    • Null values, is, like, =, between etc.
    • Database connection with python
  5. Introduction to Advanced SQL
    • Constraints
    • Views
    • Joined relation
    • Set operations

Lab Works

  • Parsing CSV, JSON etc. with Python
  • Simple SQL commands: SQL Introduction, SELECT query, WHERE, LIKE, ORDER BY, GROUP BY, HAVING, DISTINCT keyword, AND, OR operator
  • Introduction to Advanced SQL commands: Set operations, joins, views
  • CRUD operation with Python

Project work: Applications of Database Systems in Organizations

Students themselves will have to study and submit the report on database systems of any one of the Nepalese origination (such as payroll, inventory, airlines reservations, online banking systems).


  • Date, C.J., An introduction to Database Systems, New Delhi: Pearson Education
  • Hansen, Giary W. and Hansen, James V., Database Management and Design, New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
  • Silbersphatz, Alraham, Database Systems Concepts, New York, McGraw Hill Company

Sixth Semester

BPA 424: Environment Management and Climate Change

The objective of this course is to familiarize the student with environment management so that they can learn to strategies to save environmental degradation and climate change.


  1. Introduction: Environment and Development: concept, components, Importance of Environment. Sustainable Development: Evolution of Environmentalism, Emergence, concept and Features of Development.
  2. Environment and Ecology: Ecology: Concept, Types, and Components.
  3. International and Regional Initiatives for Environmental Management. Environment Impact Assessment and Climate Change: Environmental Impact Assessment: concept, need and importance and practices. Climate change and its adaptation: Its nature, impact, mitigation and adaptation.
  4. Institutional Arrangement in Nepal: government, NGOs, private sector, local government, and legal instrument.
  5. Environmental Management in Nepal: Environmental Initiatives in Nepal: Policies, plans and strategies of Government on Environment. Environmental Issues in Nepal: Environmental issues that are facing Nepal and their solutions.


  • Dessler, Andrew E. (2015). Introduction to Modern Climate Change.New Delhi: Cambridge University.
  • Krishnamoorthy, Bala (2008). Environmental Management Text and Cases. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India
Development Management Sixth Semester

DM 451: Project Management

This course aims to develop students understanding of the basic concepts and tools of project management so that they can handle projects.


  1. Introduction: Concept and types of Project, Relation between Plan, Program and Project, Project Cycle, Project Management.
  2. Project planning: Concept of Project Formulation, Project Planning Process, Feasibility study and Proposal Writing
  3. Project Appraisal: Concept and aspects of Project Appraisal – market, technical, economic, financial, environmental, organizational, Appraisal Technique: Concept of Discounting and Non Discounting Technique
  4. Project Implementation: Concept of Project Implementation, types of project organization structure, Project Scheduling : Gantt Chart, Network Techniques – PERT, CPM
  5. Project monitoring and Evaluation: Monitoring and evaluation adopted by NPC Nepal, Project Management Information System (PMIS): Concept and Process, Case study preparation


Agrawal, Govind Ram (2014). Project Management. Kathmandu:M.K. publishers and Distributor.

Chandan, Prasanna (1999). Projects: Planning Analysis Selection Implementation and Review. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.

Chaudhary, S. (2001). Project management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing company Limited.

Joy, P.K. (1999). Total Project Management: The Indian Context. Delhi: Machmilin India Limited.

Karki , Rajendra (2063). Project management. Kathmandu: M.K. publishers and Distributors.

Kerzner, Harold (2004). Project management:A Systems Approach to planning Scheduling and Controlling.

Little, IMD and Mirrless, J.A. (1974). Project Appraisal and Planning for Developing Countries . New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishers company.

Meredith, Jack/Mantel, Samuel J. (1989). Project Management. New York: John Wiley and son. Inc.

Rijal, Puskar Raj (2059). Essential of Project appraisal and Management. Kathmandu: Kastamandap Academic Enterprise.

Sharma, Bhakti P. (2006). Project management: Planning , Analysis and Control. Kathmandu: Ekta Books.