Fourth Semester

BPA 401: Social Change and Nation Building

The course aims to impart the knowledge of social change and nation building. It also helps to better understanding of social change and nation building.

  1. Introduction
    • Concept of Social change
    • Factors affecting social change
    • Process and theories of social change
  2. Social institutions and change
    • Family and social change
    • Marriage and social change
    • Education and social change
    • Religion and social change
    • Polity and social change
  3. Phenomena of social change
    • Social movement and social change
    • Collective behavior
    • Gender role
    • Urbanization
    • Information technology
  4. Concept and theories of Nation building
    • Concept of nation and state
    • Nation building and state-building, capacity building, national identity
    • Social harmony, social inclusion
    • Peace-building, post-conflict reconstruction
    • International politics of ethnicity and nationalism
  5. Nation building in Nepal
    • History, social inclusion and affirmative action, problem of nation building in Nepal
    • Gender discrimination, girls trafficking, caste-based untouchability, and exclusion of marginalized communities
    • Democratic governance and efforts of restructuring the state
  • Abraham M.F. (2006). Contemporary sociology: An introduction to concept and theories. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
  • Adhikari, G.P. (2054 B.S.). An introduction to sociology and anthropology (Text in Nepali). Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.
  • Huberman, L. & Sweezy, P.M. (2010). Introduction to socialism: Including the ABC of socialism. New York: Aakar Books.
  • Maclver, R.M & Page, C.H. (2011). Society: An introductory analysis. India: Macmillan Publishers.
  • Maharjan, P.N. (Ed) (2013). Building peace and building democracy. Kathmandu: Center for Nepal and Asian Studies.
  • Poudyal, M. P. (1984). Public Administration and Nation Building in Nepal. Delhi: NBO Publishers’ Distributors
  • Shepard, J.M. (1984). Sociology (2nd Ed.). New York: West Publishing Company
  • Upreti, B.C. (Ed) (2011). State and democracy in Nepal. Delhi: Kalinga Publications.
  • Whelpton, J. (2012). A history of Nepal (2nded.). Delhi: Cambridge University Press.
Seventh Semester

BPA 433: Security Management

The objective of this course is to impart the knowledge of security and its management. Students will be able to understand the dynamics of security management.


  1. Introduction: Security Management, Concept and nature
  2. Issues in Security Management: Security threats: Insurgency, terrorism, Demonstration, Theft, Burglary, cyber crime, human trafficking
  3. Institutional Arrangements for Security Management: Institutional arrangements for security management and their functions: national security council, implementing agencies (such as Ministry of Home, Ministry of Defense, Nepal Army, Nepal Police, Nepal Armed Police Force, National Investigation Bureau, and Private Security agencies)
  4. Security and Development: Concept and its importance, community policing
  5. Contemporary Issues in Security Management: Security Policy strategies and contemporary issues in Nepal


  • Allen Collins (2003). Security in South East Asia, Domestic, Regional, and Global Issues. New Delhi.
  • BM Ponnappa (2004). Information Security and Technology, New Delhi: Manas Publications, 2004
  • Darshan Khular (2000). Security Peace and Honor, Manas Publications, New Delhi, 2000
  • Prem Singh Basnet (2004). New Paradigm in Global Security: Civil Military Relation in Nepal, Nepal-Bhrikuti Academic Publications.