Sixth Semester

BPA 422: Government Budgeting, Accounting and Auditing

The objective of the course is to provide students with a basic knowledge of budgeting, accounting and auditing so as to make them competent and capable of understanding the principles and theories of budgeting, accounting, and auditing as well as their significance and operation.


  1. Budget
    • Meaning
    • Features and component of budget
    • Classification of budgeting
    • Formulation of budget cycle
    • Theories of budgeting
    • Process of budget formulation and budget cycle
    • History of Budget in Nepal
  2. Accountancy
    • Conceptual foundation of Accountancy
    • Book-keeping and accounting: meaning and importance
    • Accounting: principles, concept and conventions
    • Double-entry system: meaning and features
    • Financial Transaction and Record Keeping (accounting records): Accounting equation, Journal, debit and credit rules, books of original entry, types of accounts and subsidiary books including cash books and petty cash book
    • Ledger accounts
    • Trial balance
    • Depreciation
    • Bank reconciliation
  3. Financial Statements
    • Income Statement: meaning, importance and contains/items of trading and manufacturing account, profit and loss and appropriation account
    • Balance sheet
    • Statement of shareholders’ equity
  4. Governmental Accounting
    • Financial administration of governmental of Nepal
    • Store Accounting: Introduction, features, importance and forms used for recording
    • Principles and procedures of Nepal Government’s expenditure accounting system based on budgetary accounting
    • Treasury Single Account
    • Budget Sheet and Ledger Accounts
    • Financial reporting by field offices.
  5. Auditing
    • Concept, importance, objectives
    • Types of Auditing
    • Internal auditing system of government of Nepal


  • Fess, Philip E. (1987). Accounting Principles. Dallas: South-Western Publishing Co.
  • Neeley, L. Padem & Imek, Frank J. (1987). Accounting Principles and Practice. Dallas: South-Western Publishing Company.
  • Koirala et al. (2072). Principles of Accounting. Kathmandu: Asmita Books Publishers and Distributors.
  • Koirala et al. (2072). Principles of Accounting II. Kathmandu: Asmita Books Publishers and Distributors.