Fourth Semester

BPA 402: Comparative Politics

The objective of this course is to provide the students with basic knowledge of different aspects of political system, political phenomena and politics of India, China and Nepal.

  1. Comparative politics
    • Meaning, nature and scope of politics
    • Challenges of State and State-building
  2. Comparative Political System
    • Structures and Functions
    • Political Socialization
    • Political culture
    • Functional aspects of a political system
    • Comparison of political system
  3. Interest Articulation
    • Interest articulation structures/ interest groups, channels & means of interest articulation
    • Interest aggregation and political parties
    • The capabilities of a political system
  4. Politics in Foreign Countries
    • Comparison of Politics between India and China
  5. Political Development and governance in Nepal
    • Phases of political and constitutional development since 1768 A.D.
    • Challenges and opportunities of democracy and governance
    • Political Parties and Pressure Groups- their nature and roles
    • State structure – central, sub-national and local
    • Local self-government, their roles and functions
    • NGOs and INGOs in Nepal
  • Almond, G.A & Powell, G.B., Storm, K & Dalton, R.J. (2001). Comparative Politics Today: A World View (7th Ed.). Delhi: Pearson Education Asia.
  • Almond, G.A. & Powell, G.B. (1972). Comparative politics: A developmental approach, New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.
  • Cheema, G. Shabbir (2005). Building Democratic Institutions: Governance Reforms in Developjing Countries. USA: Kumarian Press, Inc.
  • Gyanwali, Ram Prasad (2012). Know Nepal, Kathmandu: Bhundipuran Prakashan
  • Joshi, Bhuvan Lal and Leo E. Rose (1996). Democratic Innovation in Nepal, Burkeley: University of California Press.
  • Pokharel, Krishna (2068 B.S.). Major Parliamentary and Nonparliamentary Political Systems. Kathmandu: M.K. Publishers and Distributors
  • Pokharel, Krishna (2069 B. S.) State, Public Administration and Public Affairs. Kathmandu: M.K. Publishers and Distributors.
  • Ray, S.N. (1999). Modern Comparative Politics: Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India
  • Regmi, D. R. (1975). Modern Nepal (Vol. 1). Calcutta: K.L. Mukhopadhyay.
  • Shah, Rishikesh (1990). Modern Nepal: A Political History 1769-1955 (Vol I. 1) New Delhi: Manohar Publications.
  • Sharma, Devi Prasad (2047 B.S.). Adhunik Nepalko Itihas, Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.
  • Shrestha, Tulsi Narayan (1996). The Concepts of Local Government and Decentralization. Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.
Local Governance Specialization

LG 472: NGO Governance

The objective of this course is to provide the students with an understanding of the concepts and practices of Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) and their roles in development.


  1. Introduction: Concept of voluntarism, Concept of Civil Society Organizations/NGOs, NGOs and Social capital, Roles and Functions of NGOs
  2. Growth of NGOs in Nepal: A Brief Account of Traditional Welfare Services in Nepal, Growth of Modern NGOs in Nepal, Registration and affiliation process of NGOs in Nepal, Types of NGOs in Nepal. INGOs and their roles in Nepal
  3. NGOs in Development: Socioeconomic status of Nepal, Overview of development plans and their contributions.
  4. NGO Governance: Monitoring and evaluation of NGOs/INGOs, Accountability of NGOs.               
  5. Issues and Implications of NGOs in Development, Examining NGOs as Alternative Institutions, Current Issues and challenges of NGOs. Case Studies


Chand, Diwaker (1991). Development through Non-Government Organizations. Kathmandu: Institute for National Development Research and Social Service.

Chitrakar, Ami (1996). Working with NGOs. Nepal IUCN.

Dhakal, Tek Nath (2006). NGOs in Livelihood Improvement: Nepalese Experience. New Delhi: Adroit Publishers.

Vartola, Juha, Ulvila, Marko, Hossain Farhad & Dhakal Tek Nath (Eds) (2000). Development NGO, Facing the 21st Century Perspectives from South Asia. New Delhi: Institute for Human Development.